Who solves an unsolved case? How do you know the owner of the hair on the street? How do we catch criminals in all criminal cases? The polices can run and catch the criminals physically, but what about the case when a criminal is not at the crime scene? If you leave it, that crime case with remain unsolved forever. The technique, to catch a criminal, that was created was forensic science.
Forensic science refers to the application of scientific methods and techniques to matters under investigation by a court of law. It is also known as criminalistics, which is the application of science to criminals and civil laws mainly on the criminal side. Many aspects of science or human science can be applied to forensic science. Forensic science treats in many areas of sciences such as biology, chemistry, physics, pathology, psychology, digital forensic, and traffic accident analysis.
Biology – DNA analysis, fingerprinting, pathology
In forensic science, biology is often used in medico-legal genetics and pathology. Medico-legal genetics is DNA testing, which serves as a crucial clue to the solution of various criminal accidents including paternity test. Scientists make development of various genotype analysis using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) and study on individual identification of organisms such as animals, plants, and microorganisms. Additionally, they conduct studies on the development of analyses for genetic types (sex chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome etc). Furthermore, they analyse the DNA information (estimation of hair colour, eye colour, skin colour, biogeography, drawing identikit picture, age estimation, identification of bodily secretions).
The use medical devices such as Postmortem Computed Tomography (PMCT) are applied to autopsy work in line with the advancement of industrial technology, providing significant help in diagnosis of sine. It is now developing new techniques such as medicine and molecular biology to apply to accurate diagnosis, damage analysis, and identification of causes of death. The typical technique is the development of Forensic Appraisal Technique Using Postmortem Computed Tomography (PMCT), and a study on the Face Restoration through 3D Skull Analysis.
Chemistry – toxicity, forensic chemistry
In forensic science, chemistry is used in an area of determining the concentration of toxic materials, and forensic chemistry. Scientists analyse the types of carious toxic substances, abused substances or food products and suggest the need for safety management of them. They should develop reliable appraisal techniques and apply this new technology to already existed technology to upgrade them.
In addition, the department of chemistry review the results of its analysis with precision instruments to provide important clues in identifying the cause of a crime or death. At the same time, research is undergoing to establish a new precision analysis method to analyse the evidence more quickly and accurately with various developed of modern technology.
Psychology helps to solve a case by judging the authenticity of a criminal’s statement
in relation to the case or analysing their psychological characteristics and enhancing
the memory of victims and witnesses.
Types of Forensic Science Jobs
- Blood Spatter Analyst: they analyse blood samples both at the crime scene and in the lab. The analyst can work with trace evidence
- Document examiners: they analyse handwriting and the process involves detection of altered images and print copies
- Forensic Anthropologists: they deal with human remains to derive information such as the age or race of a victim. They work under the supervision of a medical examiner and less likely to work with recent corpses than bones and other remains
- Medical Examiner: they must have a medical degree in addition to a four-year degree and a completion of residency. Also, involves conducting autopsies and determining a cause of death
- Forensic Technicians: they collect and preserve the evidences
- Forensic Accounting: if a secret is hidden in numbers, forensic accountants dig for evidence in financial records
- Forensic Artists: they create composites based on witness testimony as well as age
progression images and other visual aids for trial
- Laboratory Analyst: analysts analyse collected DNA evidence and performing analyses of weapons as well
- Toxicologists: they investigate blood and tissue samples for substances such as alcohol, drugs or even poisoning. Both laboratory analyst and toxicologists typically operate out of labs, as do fingerprint analysts and ballistics analysts, who work with solely with firearm evidence